- MemberAugust 18, 2021 at 12:27 pm
What is graphene oxide?
“Graphene is considered to be the strongest material in the world, as
well as one of the most conductive to electricity and heat. Graphene has
endless potential applications, in almost every industry (like
electronics, medicine, aviation and much more).”
“As graphene is expensive and relatively hard to produce, great efforts
are made to find effective yet inexpensive ways to make and use graphene
derivatives or related materials. Graphene oxide (GO)
is one of those materials – it is a single-atomic layered material, made
by the powerful oxidation of graphite, which is cheap and abundant.
Graphene oxide is an oxidized form of graphene, laced with
oxygen-containing groups. It is considered easy to process since it is
dispersible in water (and other solvents), and it can even be used to
make graphene. Graphene oxide is not a good conductor, but processes
exist to augment its properties.”
“Graphene oxide is fluorescent, which makes it especially appropriate for
various medical applications. bio-sensing and disease detection,
drug-carriers and antibacterial materials are just some of the
possibilities GO holds for the biomedical field.”
– – – – –
Graphenea joins the fight against Covid-19
With the emergence of the Covid-19 virus and its global threat, Graphenea initiated several steps to try and help those trying to combat this crisis. On March 16<sup>th</sup>, Graphenea approached all those performing research on treatment and diagnosis of Covid-19, to offer free graphene.
Now, Graphenea announced the production of a disinfectant alcohol-based hydrogel following World Health Organization recommendations and pharmaceutical guidelines. As part of its effort to join the battle against COVID-19, Graphenea will donate the hand sanitizer to public authorities for use in hospitals, by seniors, police and/or military personnel. The aim is to protect medical personnel, high risk groups, and law enforcement agents against the virus.
Graphenea will use its nanotechnology-grade laboratories to assure quality and traceability, as well as production in a contaminant-free environment. Graphenea’s production capacity is several metric tons a week.
Graphene-Info commends Graphenea’s actions and wishes everyone health and a quick end to the Covid-19 situation.
Graphene oxide gives a boost to new intranasal flu vaccine
Researchers at Georgia State University and Emory University have developed an intranasal influenza vaccine using recombinant hemagglutinin (HA), a protein found on the surface of influenza viruses, as the antigen component of the vaccine.
They also created a two-dimensional nanomaterial (polyethyleneimine-functionalized graphene oxide nanoparticles) and found that it displayed potent adjuvant (immunoenhancing) effects on influenza vaccines delivered intranasally.
“In our study, we reported for the first time that two-dimensional graphene oxide nanomaterials had a potent adjuvant effect in boosting the immune responses of intranasal hemagglutinin (HA) vaccines,” said Dr. Chunhong Dong, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral research Fellow in Dr. Baozhong Wang’s lab in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences.
“This study gives new insights into developing high performance intranasal vaccine systems with two-dimensional sheet-like nanoparticles,” Dong said. “The graphene oxide nanoparticles have extraordinary attributes for drug delivery or vaccine development, such as the ultra-large surface area for high-density antigen loading, and the vaccine showed superior immunoenhancing properties in vitro and in vivo. The nanoplatform could be easily adapted for constructing mucosal vaccines for different respiratory pathogens.”
The study, conducted in mice and cell culture, found the nanoparticles significantly enhanced immune responses at mucosal surfaces and throughout the body in mice. The robust immune responses conferred immune protection against influenza virus challenges by homologous (same) virus strains and heterologous (different) virus strains.
The results are also promising because needle-free, intranasal influenza vaccines possess superior logistical advantages over traditional injectable vaccines, such as easy administration with high acceptance for recipients and the avoidance of biohazardous waste.
- MemberAugust 20, 2021 at 4:45 pm
Bugger that – Graphene Oxide is deadly to humans and you really don’t want it in your body, anywhere, for viruses, do this instead:
“Even so, a key issue is that the current vaccines block severe disease but do not prevent infection, said Dr. Gregory Poland, a vaccine scientist at the Mayo Clinic. That is because the virus is still capable of replicating in the nose, even among vaccinated people, who can then transmit the disease through tiny, aerosolized droplets”
Reuters – what my free salt water cure stops.
The Achilles Heel of Coronavirus, is while it is still in the developing stage as Coronavirus/Covid in the warm, wet areas inside the nasal passages of your head (nose) and before it gets to become Covid in your head and lungs, 10 to 14 days later. If Coronavirus is not treated with my free salt clean water cure to flush out your nasal passages, as soon as possible, or during self isolation, it becomes Covid, which is where the money is. You cannot catch Covid! Always breathe through your nose and keep your mouth shut, because you really don’t want the Coronavirus to seed itself in your lungs!! My free salt water cure has “absolutely nothing” to do with mRNA test vaccines. Treating Coronavirus with my free salt clean water cure, flushes out the nasal cavity and kills Coronavirus, before it gets to be Covid, irrespective of if you have had mRNA vaccines or not. Mix one heaped teaspoon of salt in a mug of warm or cold clean water, cup a hand and pour some of the solution in, then sniff or snort that mugful up into your nose, spitting out everything which comes down into your mouth, by so doing, you flush out your nasal cavity, where Coronavirus lives. If you get a burning sensation (which lasts for 2-3 minutes) then you have a Coronavirus infection.When the soreness goes away, blow out your head with toilet paper and flush away, washing your hands afterwards and continue doing my salt clean water nasal cavity flush cure, morning, noon and night, or more often, if you want, until, when you do my free salt water cure, you don’t experience any soreness at all in your nasal cavity. While you are at it, swallow a couple of mouthfulls and if you get a burning sensation in your chest, then you are killing the Covid/Bronchitis there too, so keep it up, each time you do a salt water sniffle, until the soreness in your head and lungs goes away – job done. Pour some of the solution on a flat surface and allow to dry and see what you have then. This is what coats the nasal passages in your head and kills Coronavirus/Covid off. You can see why it is so effective. This is what I have done for the past 26.5 years and I am NEVER ill, nor do you need to be either.
Please pass it around to everyone who wants to give it a try.
He added that “Current vaccines are great at preventing [CO1] serious infection deep in the lungs, but not at blocking infection in the upper airways. What’s needed is a nasal-spray (vaccine) that would stop the coronavirus from taking hold at all.” – what my free salt water cure does and stops.
Keep safe. Richard
- MemberAugust 20, 2021 at 8:15 pm
<div>Thanks. I have focused on the nasal shield idea for the past 18 months too.</div><div>
My wife and I haven’t gotten infected.
- MemberSeptember 26, 2021 at 11:51 am
Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Exhibit Cardiotoxicity Through the Regulation of Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Jian Zhang, Hong-Yan Cao, […], and Lin Wang
As a “wonder material,” graphene is composed of single-layer sheet-like
and two-dimensional carbon atoms with sp2 hybridized hexagonal honeycomb
structure (Choi and Lee, 2016). Currently, it has been applied in biomedical fields, including drug delivery (Yang et al., 2015), cellular imaging (You et al., 2015), solid/liquid phase microextraction (Rezaeifar et al., 2016), and cancer therapy (Rahman et al., 2015; Krasteva et al., 2019).
Recently, a variety of graphene-derived nanomaterials (GFNs), such as
graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO), have attracted a lot of
interest in biomedical applications due to their exceptional physical
and chemical properties, including good thermal stability, excellent
mechanical strength, and high electronic conductivity (Zhang et al., 2016; Papageorgiou et al., 2017).
GO, as an oxygenated derivative of graphene, contains a series of
active oxygen-containing groups, and is usually prepared by treating
graphene with a strong acid or a strong oxidant (Joshi et al., 2015).
Different from GO, rGO is the reduced product of GO containing less
oxygen-containing groups that developed by several reducing agents (Alam et al., 2017).
The difference of GO and rGO in the content of oxygen-containing groups
results in different surface properties, such as surface charge,
electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity (Chatterjee et al., 2014).
Unfortunately, despite the biological effects of graphene, many studies showed the cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials (Rahman et al., 2015; Gurunathan and Kim, 2016). The interaction of graphene-based materials with the cell membrane is one of the main causes of cytotoxicity (Seabra et al., 2014; Gurunathan and Kim, 2016).
Graphene materials could interact with membrane lipids and receptors,
interfere cell metabolism, induce stress, or cause cell death (Jarosz et al., 2016).
Moreover, graphene materials could cause oxidative stress and reactive
oxygen species production and affect cell DNA integrity and
mitochondrial activity (Jarosz et al., 2016).
The toxic effect of graphene highly depends on the experimental
conditions, such as time of treatment, dose and type of the cells (Zhang et al., 2012; Gurunathan et al., 2013; Seabra et al., 2014).