Home Unbiased and uncensored debate Covid-19 Repurposed, Off-Label Substances: Always Consider Original Use Precautions

  • Repurposed, Off-Label Substances: Always Consider Original Use Precautions

     IveyTech updated 2 weeks, 2 days ago 1 Member · 1 Post
  • IveyTech

    Member
    June 1, 2021 at 8:54 pm

    Fluvoxamine ( from https://deserthopetreatment.com/antidepressants/fluvoxamine-luvox-addiction/ )

    As a mental health treatment purposed drug:

    Fluvoxamine Withdrawal

    While Luvox and other fluvoxamine medications are not believed to be addictive, the medication does adjust brain chemistry, and the body typically develops dependence on it over time. Physical dependence occurs when the brain requires the presence of a substance to stimulate production or uptake of chemicals like neurotransmitters. When a person is dependent on a substance, then suddenly stops taking it, they can experience withdrawal symptoms.

    Fluvoxamine Overdose

    It is difficult to overdose on SSRI medications like fluvoxamine because the drugs do not lend themselves to abuse or addiction. However, if a person is taking other antidepressant medications, including other SSRI drugs, MAO inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants, the combination of medications could cause serious side effects, and an overdose effect known as serotonin syndrome. When a person takes large doses of drugs that interact with serotonin, it can lead to too much of the neurotransmitter accumulating in the brain. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome include:

    Restlessness or agitation
    Extreme confusion
    High blood pressure
    Rapid heart rate
    Dilated pupils
    Twitching
    Loss of physical coordination or muscle strength
    Muscle rigidity
    Sweating profusely
    Diarrhea
    Headache
    Goosebumps
    Shivering

    Symptoms typically begin within several hours of taking medications that cause serotonin syndrome. Mild serotonin syndrome may go away within a few days, especially if the person contacts their doctor and takes a medication to temporarily block the SSRIs or other antidepressants. However, severe serotonin syndrome can be dangerous or even fatal. Symptoms that require emergency medical attention include:

    Irregular heartbeat
    High fever
    Seizures
    Falling unconscious

    Alternatives to Fluvoxamine

    If fluvoxamine does not work to treat a specific condition, there may be other medical alternatives. For example, there are many other SSRI medications available, and one of those may work better to moderate mood or other issues.

    Not all SSRIs are good for treating OCD. Although fluvoxamine is among those that work well, other SSRIs that are successful at treating symptoms of OCD include Zoloft, Prozac, Effexor, Celexa, and Lexapro. Additionally, Anafranil (clomipramine) has been studied thoroughly and is often prescribed to treat OCD. This medication is specifically designed to treat compulsive disorders.

    Antidepressants, including SSRIs, tricyclic antidepressants, and some MAO inhibitors, are currently considered the best long-term medical treatment for anxiety and panic disorders. However, people who have acute anxiety, including sudden panic attacks, may instead choose to take benzodiazepines like Klonopin or Xanax as needed or for a short time. It is important not to take benzodiazepines regularly for more than two weeks, as these substances quickly lead to physical dependence and potential addiction; however, for very short-term treatment of serious anxiety symptoms, they work well.

    Fluvoxamine and Addiction Treatment

    This antidepressant may be used as part of a larger treatment plan to address a mental health condition associated with addiction. When an addiction and mental health problem occur together, they are called co-occurring disorders. People who struggle with one disorder are more likely to struggle with the other: for example, people who suffer anxiety may attempt to self-medicate with CNS depressants like alcohol, or alcohol use disorder could contribute to a mood disorder. It is important for both conditions to be treated simultaneously during rehabilitation.

    As the link between addiction and mental health is better understood, rehabilitation programs are better able to treat these conditions. Treatment may include prescription medications like fluvoxamine, which help stabilize mood. Medications should always be used in conjunction with therapy.

    Doxycycline ( from https://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/comment/acne-treatment-doxycyclines-side-effects-outweigh-benefits/ )

    [This antibiotic] is a common treatment for moderate-to-severe acne, and prescribed to nearly 100,000 acne patients in the UK.

    The drug has historically showed positive results, particularly in young people.

    However, research has shown that long-term use of the drug can have very severe side effects.

    Vitamin D ( from https://www.verywellmind.com/symptoms-of-too-much-vitamin-d-5105134 )

    The current daily recommended amount of vitamin D is 600 IU per day for
    adults under the age of 70, and 800 IU for older adults. Up to 4,000 IU
    per day is generally considered the safe upper limit, however, doses up
    to 10,000 IU/day have not been shown to cause toxicity. In fact, many
    cases of vitamin D toxicity have been a result of dosing errors leading
    to significantly higher amounts being ingested. Essentially, it’s not easy to ingest toxic levels of vitamin D.

    Symptoms of Too Much Vitamin D

    Some signs that you might be getting an excessive amount of vitamin D include:

    <div>

    Nausea,
    Vomiting,
    Frequent urination,
    Appetite loss,
    Thirst,
    Dehydration,
    Constipation,
    Muscle weaknes,
    Dizziness,
    Fatigue,
    Irritability,
    Tinnitus,
    Disorientation,
    High blood pressure</div><div>

    Hypercalcemia

    Taking too much vitamin D can lead to excessive calcium in the blood, which is known as hypercalcemia. Some signs of hypercalcemia include:

    Appetite loss,
    Constipation,
    Depression,
    Headaches,
    Memory problems,
    Thirst,
    Tiredness</div><div>

    Hypercalcemia is defined as having blood serum calcium levels that are two standard deviations above the mean. Normal calcium levels are between 8.8mg/dL to 10.8mg/dL.

    Calcium serum levels between 10.5 to 13.9 mg/dL are classified as mild to moderate, but numbers between 14.0 and 16.0 mg/dL are considered a hypercalcemia crisis.

    Zinc ( from https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/ )

    [First the benefits] Health Immune function

    Severe zinc deficiency depresses immune function [49], and even mild to moderate degrees of zinc deficiency can impair macrophage and neutrophil functions, natural killer cell activity, and complement activity [50]. The body requires zinc to develop and activate T-lymphocytes [2,51]. Individuals with low zinc levels have shown reduced lymphocyte proliferation response to mitogens and other adverse alterations in immunity that can be corrected by zinc supplementation [50,52]. These alterations in immune function might explain why low zinc status has been associated with increased susceptibility to pneumonia and other infections in children in developing countries and the elderly [53-56].

    The common cold

    Researchers have hypothesized that zinc could reduce the severity and duration of cold symptoms by directly inhibiting rhinovirus binding and replication in the nasal mucosa and suppressing inflammation [66,67]. Although studies examining the effect of zinc treatment on cold symptoms have had somewhat conflicting results, overall zinc appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances. Several studies are described below in which zinc is administered as a lozenge or zinc-containing syrup that temporarily “sticks” in the mouth and throat. This allows zinc to make contact with the rhinovirus in those areas.

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 subjects (within 24 hours of developing the common cold) took a zinc acetate lozenge (13.3 mg zinc) or placebo every 2–3 wakeful hours. Compared with placebo, the zinc lozenges significantly reduced the duration of cold symptoms (cough, nasal discharge, and muscle aches) [68].

    Age-related macular degeneration

    Researchers have suggested that both zinc and antioxidants delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision loss, possibly by preventing cellular damage in the retina [72,73]. In a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, high dietary intake of zinc as well as beta carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E was associated with reduced risk of AMD in elderly subjects [74]. However, the authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2007 concluded that zinc is not effective for the primary prevention of early AMD [75], although zinc might reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.

    [Second, the Adverse Effects] Health Risks from Excessive Zinc

    Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Acute adverse effects of high zinc intake include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and headaches [2]. One case report cited severe nausea and vomiting within 30 minutes of ingesting 4 g of zinc gluconate (570 mg elemental zinc) [84]. Intakes of 150–450 mg of zinc per day have been associated with such chronic effects as low copper status, altered iron function, reduced immune function, and reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins [85]. Reductions in a copper-containing enzyme, a marker of copper status, have been reported with even moderately high zinc intakes of approximately 60 mg/day for up to 10 weeks [2]. The doses of zinc used in the AREDS study (80 mg per day of zinc in the form of zinc oxide for 6.3 years, on average) have been associated with a significant increase in hospitalizations for genitourinary causes, raising the possibility that chronically high intakes of zinc adversely affect some aspects of urinary physiology [86].

    Ivermectin ( from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5929173/ )

    EXCERPTS:

    Serious neurological adverse events have been reported from large scale community-based ivermectin treatment campaigns against Onchocerciasis volvulus
    in Africa. The mechanism of these events has been debated in the
    literature, largely focusing on the role of concomitant infection with Loa loa
    versus the presence of mdr-1 gene variants in humans allowing
    ivermectin penetration into the central nervous system. A case series of
    serious neurological adverse events occurring with the use of
    ivermectin outside of the onchocerciasis indication has been identified
    in VigiBase, an international database of suspected adverse drug
    reactions. Forty-eight cases have been reported from multiple countries
    in which ivermectin has been prescribed for multiple indications;
    clinical review excluded 20 cases with more probable explanations or
    other exclusion criteria. Within the remaining 28 cases, there is
    supportive evidence for a causative role of ivermectin including
    presence of the drug in brain tissue in one case and recurrence of
    symptoms on repeated exposure in three cases. This series suggests that
    serious neurological adverse events observed with the use of ivermectin
    in the treatment of onchocerciasis may not be entirely explained by
    concomitant high burden loiasis infections. By comparison with the
    extensive post marketing experience with ivermectin in the successful
    treatment of parasitic infections, the number of reported cases suggests
    that such events are likely rare.

    Ivermectin exhibits poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier of vertebrate animals due to the presence of a drug-transporting p-glycoprotein.<sup><sup>6</sup></sup> However, studies in knockout mice for the p-glycoprotein encoding gene, mdr-1, displayed levels of ivermectin in the brain which were 90-fold greater than normal mice.<sup><sup>16</sup></sup> Furthermore, it is well established in the veterinary world that certain breeds of dogs, such as collies, are sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin as a loss of function in the mdr-1 gene in these breeds allows for an accumulation of ivermectin within the brain.<sup><sup>17</sup></sup> Symptoms of neurotoxicity include lethargy, drooling, tremors/seizures, inability to stand, disorientation, and coma.

    Serious neurological events in humans, such as encephalopathy, confusion, stupor, or coma, after ivermectin were initially observed in campaigns to treat O. volvulus in African countries. Co-infection with L. loa was found to be a risk factor for the development of these reactions, and the product label recommends posttreatment follow up for patients who have been in L. loa endemic areas of West and Central Africa.<sup><sup>9</sup>,<sup>10</sup></sup> Furthermore, there have also been published concerns raised regarding the safety of use of ivermectin in the treatment of elderly patients with scabies.<sup><sup>18</sup>,<sup>19</sup></sup> A study investigating escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adults was performed to explore the safety of its use in the treatment of head lice. The authors documented no evidence of CNS toxicity in doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 µg/kg. However, the study population was limited to a total of 68 subjects, almost 90% of which were of Hispanic origin.<sup><sup>20</sup></sup> Drug safety surveillance for idiosyncratic reactions has been recommended.<sup><sup>19
    </sup></sup>

    The product label for ivermectin notes that the neurological events of
    dizziness (2.8%), somnolence (0.9%), vertigo (0.9%), and tremor (0.9%)
    were observed in human clinical trials for the treatment of
    strongyloidiasis and assessed as at least possibly related to
    ivermectin, whereas drug-related headache (0.2%) was observed in trials
    for onchocerciasis. The label further includes warnings for the
    occurrence of serious neurological adverse events in the contexts of
    concomitant infection of onchocerciasis and loiasis […]

    Limitations of spontaneous adverse event reports are that they are come
    from both voluntary and regulated sources, a suspicion that the reported
    drug caused the event may or may not be present, and the amount of
    information included in the report is variable. Detection of “signals”
    in these types of databases is intended to be hypothesis-generating
    rather than evidence of causality.

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ( from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327219 )

    The benefits

    Increasing the amount of NAC in the body may boost levels of some neurotransmitters, and this may improve a person’s mental function.

    According to a <hl-trusted-source source=”PubMed Central” rationale=”Highly respected database from the National Institutes of Health”>2011 reviewTrusted Source</hl-trusted-source>, NAC may also help alleviate symptoms of various psychiatric conditions, including:

    bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia</div><div>For people with chronic lung conditions, such as bronchitis or cystic fibrosis, some doctors recommend NAC. It is available in an inhalable form that may help reduce excess mucus.</div><div>

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic that can relieve aches, pains, and a fever. If a person experiences an overdose of this drug, administering NAC within <hl-trusted-source source=”PubMed Central” rationale=”Highly respected database from the National Institutes of Health”>10 hoursTrusted Source</hl-trusted-source> may help reduce the risk of associated liver damage.

    Adverse effects

    Risks

    The side effects of NAC supplementation are usually mild and may include:

    diarrheaeye irritationfatiguenauseaa skin rashvomiting

    Very rarely, <hl-trusted-source source=”PubMed Central” rationale=”Highly respected database from the National Institutes of Health”>people have reportedTrusted Source</hl-trusted-source> more severe side effects, such as low blood pressure, asthma attacks, and unexplained headaches.

    People taking nitroglycerin — as pills, patches, or creams — should not take NAC, as the combination could cause extremely low blood pressure and headaches.

    Summary

    NAC is an antioxidant that may reduce inflammation. Taking it as a supplement may help improve symptoms of a number of medical conditions.

    It is crucial to note, however, that most research into NAC supplementation has taken place on a small scale. Determining the extent of the supplement’s benefits will require further research.

    </div>

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